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                      民族建筑

                         人類從誕生那天起,居住文化就成為人類文明史的重要標志。現代社會的發展,導致原來那些原處于封閉地區的社會傳統文化、自然風貌發生巨大變化。民族建筑正在伴隨其它民族文化元素快速消失。這使得對民族歷史文化的保護、繼承和研究面臨更加緊迫的形勢。搶救中國各民族建筑文化,也是搶救全球人類文化的遺產。

                          今天,我們在這里復制、復原的中國各民族的建筑,是中華民族博物院作中國人類學民族博物館的重要組成部分。這些復原的建筑,很多仍為現實生活中的少數民族居住和生產的場所。當我們將這些建筑匯集到一起并進行觀察和比較,就會注意到:不同的社會形態、宗教信仰和地理環境,使中國各民族以多元社會結構和經濟形態并存,使各民族建筑在形制、建筑材料和建筑工藝形成了明顯差異,形成風格各異、多彩多姿的民族建筑。

                          二十世紀前半葉還生活在原始社會形態的民族,如獨龍族、怒族、佤族、黎族、基諾族等,由于過著共耕共食的原始共產主義生活方式,這些民族的典型建筑形式“坎木媽”(大房子),反映了母系社會轉換到父系社會初期生活方式的需要。而處于奴隸社會形態度的彝族所建設的民居建筑,則表現出不同社會階層之間的森嚴等級。奴隸只能住在狹小的黑房子里,而寬大的房子和高大的碉樓,一定是奴隸主居住的地方。

                          甘肅省信仰喇嘛教的藏族,所有的民居建筑都設有念經的經堂房間,人與神是不能分離的。而這一地區信仰伊斯蘭教的回族的民居建筑以居住功能為主,宗教在建筑方面的表現則主要集中在每周星期五的禮拜場所中,即清真寺。

                          生態環境對建筑所使用的材料和結構形式也有重要的影響。如:木結構的“吊腳樓”、“木楞房”;石結構的“石板房”、“碉樓”;竹結構的“干欄式”;草木結構的“千條腳”、“船形屋”;生土結構的“下沉式窯洞”、“吐魯番民居”等,都表現了特定地區的環境、生態與居住人的關系。采用竹結構的建筑物主要是滿足散熱通風的需要,而石結構的建筑物則具有保溫的功能。

                          中華民族博物院在復原各類民族建筑的過程中,不但強調建筑原材料的真實性,而且重視傳統的建筑工藝的繼承。各民族建筑及不同各類的建筑物,都由當地建筑師參與設計,由當地民族建筑工匠親自建造。特別是獨具民族特色的建筑原材料,全部由各民族從當地采伐運送到北京。如藏族建筑的白瑪草、布依族建筑的貝頁巖、苗族建筑的杉木、彝族建筑的木瓦板……這些嘗試和努力,使各民族建筑真實地保持其原始風貌,形神兼備。

                          為了更好的表現不同區域性地理環境對各民族歷史文化產生的影響,我們在設計建設每一個民族分館時,都有意識再強調他們各類的生存環境空間。每個民族分館的規劃設計為村寨的形式,不但包含院落、街道、壩子等建筑元素,而且盡可能按各民族所在地區的環境特點種植有代表性的樹木、花草和農作物。整個中華民族博物院呈現給參觀者的是一片自然、和諧,的環境,通過參觀者的自主參與,了解各中華民族不同社會生活、歷史和文化。

                          點擊下面的列表項,可以查看更多特色建筑的介紹。

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